Human agency threatens global biodiversity. Among human activities, land use has so far had the most detrimental impact on plants and animals. However, land use effects often combine with additional human pressures such as the intentional or unintentional translocation of species beyond their native ranges. These pressures may combine and interact, for example because certain types of land use foster the establishment of alien species. As a consequence, negative effects of land use on biodiversity might even be more severe than assumed because exchange of native by alien species masks the full extent of native species loss.